Computer generations PDF

Computer generations pdf: We all know that Computers have secured a very vital place in our lives. Everything in the Universe has gone through development phases similarly Computers which we are using today have also gone through various changes and upgrades over the time. 

There are “Generations” which give us a better idea of developments in Computers over the period of time.

Computer generations pdf

When it was beginning (1940) ‘Generation’ word was introduced to specify the upgrades in hardware used in computers but Nowadays ‘Generation’ word is used in both Software and Hardware related upgrades and developments. 

There are 5 types of Generations which are discussed below one by one:

Five generations of computer pdf

First Generation 

The First Generation of Computers made use of vacuum tubes as a circuit and magnetic drums which were storage devices to store data. Timeline of these computers was 1940-1956. These types of computers were quite slow, required large space, generated lots of heat, required high power consumption, single process at a time, could understand very low programming languages and delay processing time. These computers mainly relied on machine language. Input command was given on Punched Cards and Paper Tapes and output was obtained by the Printers. 

UNIVAC and ENIAC are the two types of First Generation computers which used vacuum tubes and Magnetic Drums. UNIVAC was the first commercial computer. 

Second Generation 

The Second Generation of the computer used Transistors in the place of Vacuum tubes. Transistors handled the circuit and power supply. Their timeline was 1956-1963. Inclusion of Transistors brought a very significant impact in the Second Generation computers compared to the First Generation. These computers were faster, more efficient, reliable, produced less heat, occupied less space and were cheaper too. These Computers moved from Binary language to Assembly language. 

Being smaller in size than old ones, the heat ventilation was not good which resulted in the damage of some internal parts. 

Input and output was the same as First Generation Computers. 

Third Generation 

The Third Generation of the Computers used integrated circuits. Integrated circuits were made up of many small sized transistors installed on semiconductor. Their timeline was 1964-1971. This brought a very drastic change in the journey of development of computers. Now computers are quite powerful, can handle multiple tasks. For input, a keyboard was used and monitor for output. 

Operations were quicker than older generations and computers required lesser space for their installation. Heat dissipation was good thus their efficiency and power was better. 

Fourth Generation 

Microprocessors took the place of Integrated Circuits in the fourth generation computers. Microprocessors house numerous integrated circuits. Computers which used to consume the whole room, now became quite small. 

Productivity of the computers was increased drastically and enabled to link multiple computers to form a network. Linkage between the computers gave the idea of network and internet. 

Hand held computers were possible because of Microprocessors. 

Fifth Generation 

Fifth Generation of the computer are the computers which we see in our surroundings, offices, homes etc. These are still in the development phase. Artificial Intelligence is being used in these computers which gave room to voice recognition, parallel processing analysis, forecast etc. 

These types of computers are very compact sized, very efficient and smart. 

These are yet in developmental stage, there are chances of NEXT GENERATION computers in future. 

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